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Archive
by Szczypta, C.
Abstract:
The climate of the Mediterranean basin is characterized by marked impact of the soil water deficit on vegetation growth. In these areas, frequently affected by droughts, soil moisture is a key variable for understanding the hydrological processes and the vegetation growth. Recent climatic studies have shown that climate change will probably increase the impact of droughts together with the demand for water resources in this area. As such, the Mediterranean basin is recognized as a ≪hot spot≫ of the climate change. In this context, it is important to build synergies between in situ and satellite remote sensing observing systems of the continental areas and modeling platforms. This PhD thesis was performed in the framework of the international HyMEX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean EXperiment) project, which is focused on the water cycle and on the prediction of hydrometeorological hazards (and particularly droughts) over the Mediterranean basin. A climatology of the biophysical variables (soil moisture, vegetation biomass or LAI –Leaf Area Index-) and river discharges was built for the 1991-2008 period over Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. In particular, simulations were performed by the ISBA-A-gs land surface model and by the TRIP hydrological model. ISBA-A-gs simulates photosynthesis and its link with the stomatal conductance, together with the leaf biomass annual cycle. ISBA-A-gs was driven by surface atmospheric variables derived from the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis. Unoff and deep drainage simulated by ISBAA- gs were converted into river discharges by the TRIP model. First, the ERA-Interim forcing was evaluated over the France domain. This evaluation was performed using in situ measurements of the incoming solar radiation (ISR) and with the SAFRAN reanalysis, which provides precipitation data based on a dense network of in situ observations. Biases were evidenced for the two variables: ERA-Interim underestimates precipitation (-27%) and overestimates ISR (+7%). At the scale of Europe and of the Mediterranean basin, ERA-Interim precipitation biases were rescaled on a monthly basis using the GPCC precipitation data. The impact of precipitation biases on the river discharges simulated by TRIP was assessed, as well as the impact of the differences in biophysical variables values generated by several versions of ISBA (including ISBA-A- s). It was shown that the use of ISBA-A-gs permits a better representation of the river discharges at low water levels. The use of satellite-derived product to force the LAI improves river discharge simulations at springtime. The river freshwater inputs (volume and interannual variability) to the Mediterranean Sea are close to pre-existent estimates. Finally, the soil moisture and LAI simulations were compared to in situ and satellite observations, available over the 1991- 2008 period over Europe and the Mediterranean basin, as well as to the IPSL ORCHIDEE model. A good agreement is observed between (1) the surface soil moisture simulated by ISBA-A-gs and derived from satellite microwave observations by the ESA-CCI Soil Moisture project, and (2) the interannual variability of the simulated LAI and of the LAI produced by the GEOLAND2 project. The interannual soil moisture and LAI variations are correlated during key period, but over larger areas with the model than with the remote sensing data
Reference:
Szczypta, C., 2012: Hydrologie spatiale pour le suivi des sécheresses du bassin méditerranéenPhD thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse.
Bibtex Entry:
@Phdthesis{Szczypta2012a,
  Title                    = {Hydrologie spatiale pour le suivi des sécheresses du bassin méditerranéen},
  Author                   = {Szczypta, C.},
  Beginningdate            = {2009},
  Country                  = {France},
  Enddate                  = {2012},
  Funding                  = {Région Midi-Pyrénées/Météo-France},
  Laboratory               = {CNRM-GAME},
  Location                 = {Toulouse},
  School                   = {Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse},
  Supervisors              = {J.C. Calvet (CNRM)},
  Supervisorsaffiliations  = {CNRM},
  Year                     = {2012},

  Address                  = {jean-christophe.calvet@meteo.fr;},
  Jointdegree              = {No},

  __markedentry            = {[hymexw:]},
  Abstract                 = {The climate of the Mediterranean basin is characterized by marked impact of the soil water deficit on vegetation growth. In these areas, frequently affected by droughts, soil moisture is a key variable for understanding the hydrological processes and the vegetation growth. Recent climatic studies have shown that climate change will probably increase the impact of droughts together with the demand for water resources in this area. As such, the Mediterranean basin is recognized as a ≪hot spot≫ of the climate change. In this context, it is important to build synergies between in situ and satellite remote sensing observing systems of the continental areas and modeling platforms. This PhD thesis was performed in the framework of the international HyMEX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean EXperiment) project, which is focused on the water cycle and on the prediction of hydrometeorological hazards (and particularly droughts) over the Mediterranean basin. A climatology of the biophysical variables (soil moisture, vegetation biomass or LAI –Leaf Area Index-) and river discharges was built for the 1991-2008 period over Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. In particular, simulations were performed by the ISBA-A-gs land surface model and by the TRIP hydrological model. ISBA-A-gs simulates photosynthesis and its link with the stomatal conductance, together with the leaf biomass annual cycle. ISBA-A-gs was driven by surface atmospheric variables derived from the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis. Unoff and deep drainage simulated by ISBAA- gs were converted into river discharges by the TRIP model. First, the ERA-Interim forcing was evaluated over the France domain. This evaluation was performed using in situ measurements of the incoming solar radiation (ISR) and with the SAFRAN reanalysis, which provides precipitation data based on a dense network of in situ observations. Biases were evidenced for the two variables: ERA-Interim underestimates precipitation (-27%) and overestimates ISR (+7%). At the scale of Europe and of the Mediterranean basin, ERA-Interim precipitation biases were rescaled on a monthly basis using the GPCC precipitation data. The impact of precipitation biases on the river discharges simulated by TRIP was assessed, as well as the impact of the differences in biophysical variables values generated by several versions of ISBA (including ISBA-A- s). It was shown that the use of ISBA-A-gs permits a better representation of the river discharges at low water levels. The use of satellite-derived product to force the LAI improves river discharge simulations at springtime. The river freshwater inputs (volume and interannual variability) to the Mediterranean Sea are close to pre-existent estimates. Finally, the soil moisture and LAI simulations were compared to in situ and satellite observations, available over the 1991- 2008 period over Europe and the Mediterranean basin, as well as to the IPSL ORCHIDEE model. A good agreement is observed between (1) the surface soil moisture simulated by ISBA-A-gs and derived from satellite microwave observations by the ESA-CCI Soil Moisture project, and (2) the interannual variability of the simulated LAI and of the LAI produced by the GEOLAND2 project. The interannual soil moisture and LAI variations are correlated during key period, but over larger areas with the model than with the remote sensing data},
  Owner                    = {hymexw},
  Timestamp                = {2016.01.08}
}